Perfume ingredients include a variety of compounds and chemicals. These natural and synthetic compounds are necessary to create the different fragrances for the perfume. The major perfume ingredients are split into several categories, including synthetic fragrances, essential oils, bases and stabilizers.
Perfume is created using a fragrance and base compound. The fragrance compound makes up 25 to 50% of the perfume and relies on synthetic fragrances or essential oils. The base of the perfume may account for 35 to 75% of the fragrance. This is made up using a liquid solution like water or alcohol. A perfume can also include a stabilizer agent to help maintain the scent and stop the breakdown of ingredients.
Here are some of the major perfume bases and stabilizers:
A large percentage of the perfumes in the market include a base of ethyl alcohol (also called pure alcohol or ethanol). The base compound is known for its ability to vaporize quickly. It is highly effective at holding the perfume compound and can easily dissolve into the skin. Also, there is an organic alternative known as denatured alcohol.
The Coumarin ingredient is added to perfume to help increase the strength and quality of the aroma. Coumarin is naturally sourced from certain beans, sweet grass and cassia bark. It is also synthetically produced. This chemical has a light sweet aroma that helps with boosting the scent profile of the compounds, especially those with a musk and spice smell.
Benzyl benzoate (also called benzyl alcohol or benzoic acid) is a common stabilizer or fixative in a long list of perfumes. It is naturally sourced from many species of plants. Once the compound is added to the perfumes ingredient, it can help to increase the level of stability. Benzyl benzoate is highly effective at retaining the scent profile and will ensure the fragrance stays the same for many years.
The phthalates compound (also known as diethyl phthalate) is another of the stabilizers used in perfume. This is a very common element in perfume and is likely to feature in about 65% of the fragrances in the market. It functions similar to benzyl benzoate and helps to preserve the aroma profile of the perfume.
The water added to perfume is certain to undergo a distillation process to help with removing minerals or chemicals that could impact the quality of the stability or scent profile. Distilled water is also listed on the perfume bottle as aqua and makes up a large percentage of the perfumes content.